According to various reports, the frequency of preterm birth varies between 4 and 20%.However, in different countries - different rules.In Russia, the birth of a baby is considered premature to between the 28th and 37th week of pregnancy (in the US, by comparison, are considered to be preterm birth between the 20th and 37th weeks).Baby was born, we are very vulnerable: it weighs from 1 to 2.5 kg, its height - 35-115 cm, all organs and systems he still immature, he needs nursing and support.At this time, every extra day of pregnancy can make a difference: it was completed later than pregnancy, the greater the chances of the baby to adapt.Modern medicine now allows to save (and save!), Even those "bustler" who was born in 22-28 weeks.According to the law, even extremely premature baby, weighing 500 g must provide medical care.Let's talk on the topic of preterm and post-term pregnant women.
Doctors distinguish between post-term pregnancy, and prolonged.The second differs from t
Doctors able to predict the delivery date women, analyzing the metabolic processes occurring in the amniotic fluid, and detecting it special molecules - markers of preterm delivery.But an experienced obstetrician such techniques are not clear.
Factors that can lead to premature delivery - very young or very mature age of the expectant mother, smoking, gynecological diseases, chronic diseases: diabetes, hypertension, etc.Are provoking factor and complications emerged in the course of pregnancy: preeclampsia, polyhydramnios, low location of the placenta, multiple pregnancy.Negative emotions or severe stress can trigger premature labor, but usually - in the presence of other risk factors.But waking at night, for example, is more dangerous: it breaks the rhythm of life not only my mother, but the baby that causes him discomfort and can result in premature birth.
perenashivanie At the heart of a woman is the absence of a biological organism ready to leave."Damage" can happen anywhere.For example: not ready for the central nervous system, or blood is not enough hormones that trigger a generic process, or dysfunction of the placenta inhibits onset of labor.Deficiency of vitamin C, P, E, and B complex also promotes perenashivanie pregnancy.In general, the factors that disrupt the formation of a so-called dominant clan, very much, and usually they act collectively.
for newborns early start more dangerous of late.The kid needs special protection and special conditions in the first months of life.Depending on the degree of prematurity and apply different methods of nursing.The newborn is less than norm, thin - had not yet managed to accumulate subcutaneous "Zhirkov."For this reason, color - red or purple translucent because blood vessels.The head - a disproportionately large, with movable joints and open lateral fontanelle (at the normal newborn at birth, they are closed).It can be "fluffy" because of the abundance of vellus hair lanugo, on the body.This kid is not able to regulate body temperature and is easily supercooled, he needed a heated incubator.If the degree of prematurity is strong, the baby is not yet fully formed lungs, so it needs artificial ventilation them.If breathing is independent, it is superficial, irregular, possibly apnea.The nervous system in preterm crumbs immature reflexes are weak or non-existent.For these children is characterized by hypotonia: hands and feet are not given to the body relaxed.
their growth is correct, but the weight may be less than normal - because the placenta can not provide decent food crumbs.Moreover, in the early days of the physiological loss of weight in these kids anymore, and they take longer to recover.The skin is dry, scaly, yellowish, no vellus hair, and the hair and nails are longer than normal babies.The nervous system excitability, pronounced reflexes.At the head of fontanels is less than normal.Increased physical activity is often observed hypertonicity.But despite the different problems after birth in preterm and post-term children have in common is that in the first months of life, they need to be attentive.
• For them, it is essential breastfeeding.Including because their immune system is weakened from birth.
• Kids often vomit, premature prone to goiter, and post-term suffering from constipation.Due to problems with digestion and they are in a more adult require special feeding mode.
• Adapting to the environment is delayed for 1-2 months (compared to the usual 28 days) and goes harder.
• Kids are more prone to infections and colds, twice as likely to suffer from acute respiratory infections.
• Due to the nature of the nervous system of children in the first years of life should observe a neurologist.They need to make regular neyrosonogrammu (ultrasound of the brain), showing massages and gymnastics.
• Growth rates also may be different from the physiological norm.Premature catching peers very quickly, by the year.Prolonged could "slow down", for example, they appear later teeth.
• Both - "manual" kids.They are very important tactile contact with his mother, it helps them to develop harmoniously.So do not deny yourself the pleasure to "squeeze" your baby, practice co-sleeping, more pat and hug crumbs.