Mites belong to the class of small arachnids (to which also belong to the spiders).Their medical importance is the fact that they are carriers of a number of human disease by introducing infectious agents through the skin by the bite.Nowadays there are very dangerous diseases transmitted by tick bites.
spread of the disease
Ticks are carriers of a number of pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganisms, including viruses, Rickettsia (bacteriolaking microorganisms, bacteria and protozoa).At the same time the source of infection is an animal, the bite of which the micro-organism enters the body of the tick.In some cases, the parasite multiplies in ticks and transmitted to offspring through the eggs.Ticks may be responsible for the development of viral encephalitis, rickettsial diseases - ehrlichiosis, Q fever, tick-borne rickettsiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, bacterial infections - tularemia and Lyme disease and babesiosis protozoa infection.
Ticks are about 3 mm in length, but
patient with high fever the first stage of the physical examination is the examination of the skin, which reveals a characteristic rash - an important symptom for diagnosis.In addition, the skin can detect black scab - a typical wound from a tick bite.Each of the diseases transmitted by ticks, has characteristic clinical signs:
- in viral encephalitis observed inflammation of the brain, which in severe cases can lead to epilepsy, coma, or permanent damage to the brain tissue;
- ehrlichiosis may be accompanied by the appearance of blotchy skin rashes.Complications of the disease include anemia, kidney damage, liver, lungs and nervous system;
- Q fever is usually accompanied by the development of pneumonia, liver inflammation and damage to heart valves;
- characteristic feature is a tick-borne rickettsiosis profuse rash that covers the hands and feet, as well as conjunctivitis.In the pathological process may involve various agencies;
- spotted fever when there is a pronounced spreading pink rash.The complication often becomes acute renal failure;
- Lyme disease is characterized ringed rash in the area of the tick bite.
complications affecting the heart, nervous system and joints can develop months or years after infection.When tularemia is formed at the site of infection ulcer;also occurs lymphatitis;marked headache, weight loss and fever.Like the malaria parasites, protozoa that cause babesiosis, are introduced into erythrocytes.
- disease can lead to anemia, enlarged liver and spleen, but usually has a short uncomplicated;
- when trench fever (paroxysmal rickettsial disease) often causes pain in the eyeballs, as well as the back and legs.Symptoms tend to reditsivirovaniyu.The deaths usually occur among infants and the elderly.
Finding stuck to the skin mite, you must remove it with tweezers, gently shaking of the head.You can also grease with Vaseline or oil parasite.This will make him loosen his grip, and a few hours of the tick can be removed intact.Followed treat wound parasite extracting recommended to place in a container with an alcohol and include for identification.
doctor may suspect tick-borne infections in the presence of characteristic symptoms, especially the rash.It is also necessary to find out in what areas has recently been a patient, for example, in the country where the mites are more common, or, in countries where such diseases are common.Then, usually carried out laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other diseases with similar symptoms.In most cases, blood test for antibodies to the pathogen infection (serology).In some diseases, such as tick-borne rickettsial disease and babesiosis microorganism can be identified in the study of blood smear under a microscope.
When Lyme disease pathogen can be detected in a sample of the skin.Lumbar puncture with a fence cerebrospinal fluid reveals changes characteristic of viral encephalitis and Lyme disease.In some diseases, such as tularemia and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, experts do not conduct laboratory to isolate the causative agent crop, since it is accompanied by a high-risk personnel.However, to obtain the results of serological tests for antibodies it requires several weeks, during which no treatment can develop serious complications.In such cases, the treatment is usually started based on the clinical features of the disease.