in the world about 5% of children are born with congenital malformations, with it should be pointed out that this can occur in a completely healthy family, no bad habits and good flowing pregnancy, alas, of this no one is safe.
It is always a psychological shock for the parents, they are experiencing it for the first time, then there is fear, not the ability to have healthy children, and a sense of guilt comes to the child.We can not take into account the high mortality rate among children with birth defects.This is the most difficult topic in obstetrics and gynecology.
Congenital malformations in children is a very sensitive issue for both physicians and parents.In most malformations, behavior and general state of the baby immediately after birth, does not change much, nothing more, not nastorazhivaya doctor and caregivers, so you should be especially vigilant.Typically, a surgical pathology, which is important for the timing and method of surgery.
all congenital malformations are divided into
I. hereditary anomaly, a large group of vices in which he laid a defect in the genes and passed oninheritance.
II. Congenital anomalies, they purchased the fruit during fetal development.
But this division is not entirely true, since the defects arising, usually together, genetics plus unfavorable environmental conditions, that is, there are several factors involved exposure.
can not clearly identify congenital malformations in children, whether they are purely surgical pathology or are in the competence of the neonatologist, pediatrician, geneticist or other specialist.Therefore, for the diagnosis and prognosis of pregnancy, during which there was a threat to end the birth of a baby with congenital disorders, involvement of all the necessary specialists and modern medical instruments.These women should give birth in specialized centers, in which the baby immediately after birth can get professional help.
Congenital malformations in children causes and risk factors
majority of world scientists believe that congenital malformations, it is the result of mutations occurring at different levels: chromosomal, genetic and genomic.And on that level at which there was a failure it depends on the severity of defect and the ability to compensate for it.The reasons which led to such consequences are many and unfortunately not always possible to take them into account and correct, but there are basic, we need to know.The science that studies all the causes and risk factors, especially in the early stages of pregnancy, called Teratology , and most studied are the following:
- Ionizing radiation , these include X-rays, radioactive isotopesbut a negative effect on the genes, they also have a toxic effect, and as a result this is the reason most often leads to severe malformations.
- Infections , any deferred during pregnancy, especially during the first three months, except for teratogenic effects, they can also be transmitted from mother to fetus.
- Medications , there is no medication that could without harm be used during pregnancy, and therefore before prescribe treatment woman waiting for a child, it is necessary to weigh the risk of adverse effects on the fetus andpossible therapeutic effect.But we should remember that we should not go to extremes, and not treated with medication, such as tonsillitis or pneumonia, just because a woman is pregnant, and tablets harmful to the health of the fetus, because the baby feels good, if the mother is not sick.
- Alcohol, use during pregnancy, in large doses, leading to the development of fetal alcohol syndrome in the newborn, and the development of severe malformations in the baby, sometimes incompatible with life.But again, a glass of champagne or a good wine, drunk shortly before conception, is not a cause for termination of pregnancy.
- Nicotine has a negative effect on the fetus, in addition to congenital malformation leads to the fact that the child is still in utero is lagging behind in physical development.And after the birth may develop withdrawal symptoms.The same applies to the reception narcotic drugs during pregnancy .
- toxic effects of chemicals , as shown, a woman on a sort of activity, which has contact with chemicals must cease contact with them for 2-3 months before the expected pregnancy and her wholeincluding the period of breastfeeding.
- Families , in which the parents or next of kin had babies with congenital malformations, the risk of a baby with congenital malformations is increased by several times, with those with the same modifications.We are talking about the so-called "family savings."
- presence of the mother or father chronic diseases with dysfunction of organs and systems.
at risk include:
- Families with in the immediate family, already is born babies with congenital malformations or hereditary diseases, even if the parents are healthy.
- families that already have a child with congenital .
- If the previous pregnancy ended in a miscarriage or stillborn.
- consanguineous marriages, for example, between cousins or second cousins and sisters .
- Men older than 50 and women older than 35 years.
To reduce the risk of having a baby with a congenital pathology established family planning centers, staffed by professionals.Where you make a family tree, examined and will drive this risk to a minimum.The current level of medical technology makes this possible.
When it comes to the prophets of birth of children to the question "Who is to blame?", The answer is not necessary to look for it, as a rule, remains without a solution is more appropriate to seek an answer to the question: "What should I do?".
But do not despair, according to statistics, in subsequent pregnancies, in 96% of cases, is born absolutely healthy baby.