vision plays an important role in human life.Through vision we learn most of the information, focusing in space, adjusting their working or learning activities.With the view formed by the perception of objects or actions that affect the human senses.If the sphere of feelings changed as a result of visual impairment, it primarily affects the sensory perception and appearance.Congenital eye disease in infants and preschool children have become one of the main causes of poor vision and blindness.And 20% of all inborn, genetic diseases are accompanied by visual organs.
main causes of early and significant reduction of these are congenital diseases of the eye:
- Congenital glaucoma eye - a disease that is accompanied by high intraocular pressure, or abnormal increase buphthalmos eyeball gidrofalmom - the accumulation of fluid within the eye cavities;
- congenital cataract, which is characterized by a change in shape, position, and opacity of the lens;
- microphthalmia, microcornea or inborn reduced eyeb
- Aniridia or congenital absence of the iris;
- retinopathy of prematurity, or zahrustalikovoe connective degeneration of the vitreous and retina.The disease occurs mainly in preterm infants and children due to the violation of the partial pressure in incubators;
- Intraocular hemorrhage in newborns, especially in the central area of the retina, which suffered heavy labor;
- dacryocystitis or inflammation, obstruction of lacrimal system;
- Ptosis - drooping of the upper or lower eyelid caused by atrophy and hypoplasia of the ocular muscles;
- Inversion age, in which case the upper or lower eyelid is turned inward to the eyeball, eyelashes rub against the eye membranes and cause watery eyes;
- Spastic ectropion that occurs due to reduction of the orbital part of the circular muscles of the eye;
well as other ophthalmic pathologies.
What is the cause of congenital abnormalities of vision in children?The main causes of congenital diseases considered to be genetically hereditary predisposition, parental age and state of health of parents, environmental factors, carry-forward of the disease during pregnancy, acceptance of various drugs, intractable, abnormal births, and so on.
in the early diagnosis of congenital diseases of the eye in children play a central role obstetricians and pediatricians maternity.It is important to identify ocular pathology in the first hours or days of life of the newborn child.Early detection of potential eye diseases contributes to their rapid cure and prevention of blindness.
first inspection baby ophthalmologist must be made between the ages of two to four months, when fairly easy to determine the rate of the disease.The first step is to inspect the children whose mothers suffered pathological childbirth, various infectious diseases during pregnancy, beriberi, hyperthermia, X-ray examination and so on.
very important at an early stage to identify congenital glaucoma and operate, so not operated on and diagnosed late congenital glaucoma can lead to complete loss of vision.Conducted early ophthalmic surgery are more likely to keep the child vision, they are more effective and less traumatic.
Early diagnosis of cataract can allow for appropriate treatment of the disease, as well as preventive actions aimed at reducing complications.Timing of surgery in congenital cataract in children set depending on the severity of the child.If a strong clouding of the lens, it is possible to operate in the first six months of life.Later prescribe mandatory vision correction with glasses, and to 6 years recommend contact lenses.For the full development of the retina and reduce the risk of strabismus, amblyopia or weakening of the visual analyzer, and reduce the risk of frequent involuntary oscillating eye movements or nystagmus cataract ophthalmologists prescribe appropriate medical prophylaxis.
In congenital dacryocystitis and obstruction tearfully-deducing ways prescribed drug treatment combined with therapeutic massage of the lower eyelid.This method of treatment, since the hospital at the early diagnosis of disease gives excellent results in 99% of cases of the disease.
early detection ptosis, drooping eyelids, promptly removed when the child aged 2-3 years.Prior to this period, the baby must be lifted mechanically eyelids and hold them with adhesive tape, to the development of good vision.
appeared congenital or strabismus, also can not be ignored as a squint could be a consequence of one of the pathologies of view.You should always consult and treatment of children with this pathology eye ophthalmologist.
very important for the recovery of children is early detection angioma in infants.Angioma - is benign in most cases, the innate formation consisting of lymphatic and blood vessels.If Angioma start small and grow in size, it is recommended to remove it at an early age by cryocautery or freezing or by using cosmetic surgery.
diagnosis of congenital eye diseases and their treatment at an early stage of life is the prevention of blindness in children.