ENT disease is the famous ENT - pathology, which include: ears, nose and throat.The importance of this question lies in the fact that almost everyone in their lives faced with diseases of these organs, but often many patients are not diagnosed until the end, because of the chronic diseases that accompany this area of human life.At first glance, it's not complicated disease, as many are treated at home, but in fact they are in serious complications, sometimes even leading to the death of patients.
Examination of patients with otorhinolaryngological diseases characterized in that the bodies of the subjects in the screen are small, very inconveniently located and that is common to all endoscopic examination.
To begin, as always practiced medicine, examination of the patient begins with the collection of data from medical history, that is, the patient's complaint, history of the disease, other diseases transferred earlier practiced treatment and its effectiveness.
In the next stage of examination of
survey methods nose
survey nose always starts with a simple rinoskopii, that is a small nasal dilator to evaluate the color of the mucous membranes, boils, ulcers, polyps.Used and rear inspection nasal cavity that allows viewing pathological processes in the nasopharynx, nose state structures in the area.A new method for better survey is fibrorinofaringoskopiya, which allows not only carefully examine the nasopharynx, but also take tissue for a biopsy (to diagnose tumors).For a survey of the functions of the nose several tests used to determine the respiratory function, as well as the ability to analyze the perception of smell.To do this, the patient offer a few strong-smelling substances (vinegar, alcohol, ammonia).When the nose is lowered - called hyposphresia, if it really is not - it anosmia.
for examination of the sinuses but palpation and percussion, the doctor prescribes the projection of x-rays of the sinuses, which helps to detect the presence of acute or chronic process.
The simplest method is to examine the ears otoscopy.It allows you to quickly and easily identify the diseases of the external auditory canal, part of the middle ear, foreign objects or injuries.Acumetry allows you to explore the ability of the ear to hear, this doctor says in a whisper at a distance of about 6 meters from the patient.If the patient does not hear, then the doctor said the normal conversational volume, and if the patient does not hear the sound, then the doctor uses a shout (usually heard at a distance of 200 m, a simple conversation at a distance of 120 m).Used also instrumental acumetry using fork (metal product, which is used in music when struck vibrates and produces a sound).In this case, the hearing is tested on two tracks of audio: Tap and air routes.The vibrating state, the tuning fork is fixed in the middle of the head, and the doctor waits until the patient can not hear more than the outgoing sound.In the next step, a tuning fork vibrating in the state, is applied to the ear at a distance of 1 cm. Normally, the sound of the patient airways longer hear than bone path.
After a visual inspection of the pharynx, the inner part of it is also examined endoscopically - laryngoscopy.This procedure is more complicated than the above described endoscopic examination methods, as it is often triggered the gag reflex, which prevents thorough inspection authority.But examination of the throat by a fibrolaringoskopa to evaluate all the anatomical features and even take pictures or videos.Mikrolaringoskopiya allows you to see not only the throat, but the upper part of the trachea, a survey carried out under general anesthesia.The doctor evaluates the mucosa of the pharynx, the state of the vocal cords, possible tumors, also during the survey taken a piece of tissue for biopsy.
important role in the diagnosis of diseases of the survey is to vote, namely its three parameters: power (in decibels), pitch and timbre.
Normal, everyday voice has the power to 20-30 dB in whisper - 10 dB, while the cry - 50-60 dB.The height is measured in hertz voices and depends on the threshold of tension of the vocal cords, so the child's cry has 300-400 Hz, and simple conversation adult - 250 Hz.During the height of puberty voice drops an octave of boys and one-third octave girls.The timbre of the voice is a kind of painting voice that helps us to distinguish between a person familiar to us.It is formed at the time of passage of sound through the cavity.The resonating sound role: the larynx, nasal passages, trachea and main bronchi.
survey of patients with ENT diseases, and conducted by conventional methods that are typical of other systems.Most often this routine laboratory tests (blood count, clotting time, prothrombin, blood glucose, urine, bacteriological analysis smear from the nasal cavity, ear or throat), is also widespread radiography, computed tomography, and in some cases, magneticresonance.Often patients with ENT diseases require consultation with other professionals.