Thyroid tumors are divided into benign and malignant.For benign tumors are papillary and follicular adenomas, adenomas Hürthle cell functioning adenoma (Plummer's disease), and others.What are the main causes of thyroid tumors?
bulk occupies cancer tumors, and the share of other types of neoplasias (sarcoma, lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, etc.) not more than 1-2% of all malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland.Therefore, it will be a just cancer.But this group of tumors, too, is far from uniform.There are highly differentiated thyroid cancers (papillary and follicular), medullary carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma - anaplastic.They differ morphologically.There is a difference in the possibility of treatment and cure, and accordingly, in prognosis of the disease.
Currently, thyroid nodules are detected in about 20-30% of the inhabitants of our planet, and in recent years the frequency of detection is constantly growing, which is probably associated with the spread of high-quality ultrasound
Russia has the highest incidence rates of the male population - in Bryansk, Oryol, Saratov regions, Altai and Krasnodar Territory.In terms of incidence of women leaders Altai Krai, Bryansk region, Krasnodar region, Sakhalin Region.Such unevenness is associated with either iodine deficiency in these areas, or with radiation situation there.In all countries, the incidence of thyroid cancer is growing, and in the last ten years has doubled.
Causes of thyroid cancer are not known precisely, but the risk factors studied well enough.These include low levels of iodine in the diet, radiation, certain hereditary conditions (Gardner's syndrome, familial polyposis, a disease Cowden) associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, some factors related to lifestyle (not excluded relationship with tobacco and alcohol).Definitely a proven risk factor is ionizing radiation.
noticed that the causes and thyroid cancer is more common in people who have had a child or young radiotherapy head and neck about any disease.Thyroid cancer is often seen in persons with long-term nodular goiters.Matter and hormonal disorders in the body resulting from chronic diseases of other endocrine organs.On the basis of all known risk factors and causes, and the above mentioned article, it is possible to form a group of people with an increased risk of thyroid cancer.
This group includes: persons who have been subjected to ionizing radiation;Patients with long-term nodules in the thyroid gland (nodular goiters, nodal forms of chronic thyroiditis, nodular goiters recurrent);all men with nodules in the thyroid gland, regardless of the length of the existence of nodes;the person in the family who have patients medullary thyroid cancer;patients, especially females with benign or malignant tumors of genitalia, breast, colon, adrenal gland in the presence of nodule in the thyroid gland.The formation of such groups is necessary for targeted medical examination, which allows detection of cancers at an early stage and conduct timely treatment.Particularly relevant this question in connection with the increasingly complex radiation environment.The high efficiency of this approach is fully confirmed in a clinical examination of the target, for example, in the Bryansk region.
first finds and cause thyroid cancer is to detect it in the assembly.A node can be detected by the patient, physician, or performing ultrasonography of the neck.Other symptoms include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing food, the increase in the lymph node in the neck, coughing, choking when eating, difficulty in breathing.These symptoms occur when greater amounts of the primary tumor and the more common tumor processes as a whole.There are not very common, because in most cases, thyroid cancer develops slowly.For the diagnosis of thyroid cancer are needed inspection and palpation of the thyroid gland, cervical lymph nodes palpation, ultrasonography.It is quite enough to detect a node or nodes.But more than 90% of cases are benign, so verification is needed, which is carried out by means of fine-needle aspiration biopsy followed by cytology.In most cases, this is enough, except for follicular cancer, where the final distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular cancer is carried out after removing the thyroid lobe with a suspicious node.