laryngeal tumors are divided into benign and malignant.For benign tumors are papilloma and a fibroma, very rare hemangiomas and lymphangiomas.Among the malignant tumors of the larynx
Laryngeal cancer ranks first among malignant tumors of the head and neck (50-60%), accounting for 1-4% of the overall structure of oncological diseases.Urban population is ill with cancer of the larynx and a half to two times more likely in rural areas.Laryngeal cancer occurs in men more often than women, they make up at least 80-95% of patients.These tumors are rare in young age, the majority of laryngeal cancer patients are aged 60-70 years.In Russia, the incidence of laryngeal cancer is not very high.Over the past 10 years, increasing the incidence of cancer of the larynx does not actually observed.The number of primary tumors of the larynx revealed a year is about 7 thousand.Thus 50% of patients diagnosed at least third stages of the disease.During the first year after diagnosis it kills about 30% of patients, but this is due not only to the late diagnosis, but also quite frequent failure patients by the removal of the larynx, resulting in the loss of vocal function.
main etiological factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol.Several studies have found an association between the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the duration of smoking and the risk of cancer of the larynx.The higher the dose and the experience of smoking, the higher the risk of cancer.Increased risk of developing cancer of the larynx and is associated with other forms of tobacco consumption.Studies in India have shown that the relative risk of cancer of the larynx, there are smokers, and those who chew tobacco, but people with both of these habits, the risk is higher by 3-4 times.
Excessive consumption of alcohol - the first reason, especially alcoholic beverages, also increases the risk of developing cancer of the larynx.In addition to the increase in alcoholics such risk was observed, for example, the workers of the Danish breweries who received free beer.Risk factors are still occupational hazard, weakening of the immune system and the infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV).With regard to occupational hazards, that are important contacts with wood dust, paint, asbestos, nickel, sulfuric acid.
symptoms and causes of laryngeal cancer depend on the size of the tumor and, in what department she appeared larynx.In cancer of the vocal cords start and most characteristic symptom is hoarseness.With the localization of the causes of cancer in the upper part of the larynx (eve) often observed scratchy, foreign body sensation, clumsiness and moderate pain on swallowing, often extending to the ear, in the propagation process in the throat, dysphagia and pain increase.For cancer podskladochnogo larynx most typical gradually increasing shortness of breath and hoarseness.Described symptoms are worse with increasing tumor size and infiltration of surrounding
vocal function recovery
Often patients refuse surgery for cancer of the larynx due to the impending loss of tracheostomy and voice functions.But such behavior can not be regarded as justified and reasonable, as life certainly more vocal function.Why, then speech and restoration is possible.Normally, it provided human vocal cords swing the air flow coming out of the light, but after removal of the vocal cords normal speech becomes impossible.There are three main options to restore speech after removal of the vocal folds: esophageal speech, and tracheoesophageal fistula elektrogortan.All of these methods use the throat, palate, tongue, teeth and lips for the vibrations are transformed into speech.
Treatment of laryngeal cancer depends on the stage of the tumor, as well as the general state of the patient.They are used three main methods of treatment: surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.Often a combination of two or all three treatments.From the viewpoint of radical surgical treatment and radiotherapy have independent value and can be used as the sole form of treatment.Chemotherapy has an auxiliary character, performed before radiation therapy or surgery to reduce the size of the tumor or after surgery or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells possible.
prognosis of laryngeal cancer depends on the location of the tumor, stage of disease and the correct choice of treatment.The most favorable prognosis in cancer of the vocal folds - 90% of patients in the 1st and 2nd stages achieved a complete cure.Less favorable prognosis of cancer and podskladochnogo vestibular department of a larynx - at a combined method of treatment can achieve a five-year survival in 60-70% of patients.The most unfavorable prognosis in patients with fixed regional metastases or tumor metastases in distant organs.
prevention measures are added, depending on the risk factors for cancer of the larynx, mentioned in the article.Most people can prevent cancer of the larynx - at refusal of smoking and alcohol consumption, subject to safety when working with carcinogens.No less urgent task for the early diagnosis of cancer, as it allows for the timely and proper treatment with good results and a good prognosis.Methods of screening for early detection of cancer of the larynx are not developed, so the most important is timely access to a doctor.To this end, the public should be aware of possible signs.