Nosebleeds we often perceive as annoying trifle, and do not attach much importance to them, even if they are repeated over the years.And in vain, because in some cases the causes of nosebleeds can be serious health problems.So, what can signal the body and how to stop the bleeding?
Nosebleeds occur suddenly due to the fact that impaired blood clotting or the integrity of the vascular walls of the mucous membranes of the nasal sinuses.
What are the causes of bleeding from the nose?They are divided into local and general.
local causes nosebleeds
• Causes of bleeding in 90% of cases - is the superficial vascular plexus in the nasal septum, which is very easy to damage, even if a sharp bend his head or blow your nose strongly.
• Various injuries from non-essential (characteristic for those who love picking his nose) to serious, which may be associated with damage to the bones of the skull.
• Appearance of nasal bleeding can occur due to malignant and benign tumors in the nasal cavity.
• These degenerative changes in the mucosa as a form of atrophic rhinitis or nasal septum deviation.
• Abnormalities in the development of mucosal vessels, such as vascular hypertrophy, compound them in the cavernous body.
• Falling into the nasal passages of foreign bodies, most often these causes of bleeding observed in children.
• Changes in the structure of the nasal mucosa due to infections such as diphtheria, tuberculosis, syphilis, acute and chronic rhinitis or sinusitis, which resulted in a large amount of blood flows to the nasal mucosa.
Common causes of nosebleeds
• Diseases of the blood that are associated with a deficiency of clotting.
• Diseases and conditions associated with increased vascular permeability: an inflammation of blood vessels, vitamin deficiencies, inherited disorder of the vascular walls, acute infections, such as: SARS, influenza, measles.
• Diseases of the cardiovascular system, in particular - hypertension, high intracranial pressure, atherosclerosis, heart defects.
• Chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatitis, fibrosis, steatosis.
• Heat and sunstroke, sudden changes in pressure, strong physical exertion.
• extreme fatigue and lack of sleep.
How to determine the severity of nosebleeds?
Nosebleeds classified physician depending on how they are expressed:
• Minor bleeding.Typically, this bleeding anteroinferior departments septum of a few milliliters.As a rule, they are on their own after a short time.However, the regular recurrence of such processes are a signal that the body there were some failures and need to see a doctor.
• Moderate nosebleeds are more abundant, and 200 ml.They require careful observation, particularly if there are children or elderly people weakened because the blood can flow back down the walls of the nasopharynx, whereby not always possible to correctly estimate the amount of blood loss.And after some time a person may vomit the blood as it accumulates in the stomach.These cases also require access to the otolaryngologist.
• Severe nosebleeds - those who do not stop on their own and are a threat to human life.This so-called "tail" bleeding from vessels in the deep parts of the nasal cavity.Blood loss in such cases sometimes reach one liter per day.This patient record symptoms of acute blood loss, weakness, low blood pressure, "flies" before their eyes, sweating and other symptoms-headed.Of course, with such bleeding should immediately call "ambulance."Often they are the consequences of injuries in the form of aneurysm, and require surgical intervention to block the affected vessels.
First aid for nosebleeds
• When bleeding can not sit or lie down with his head thrown back, as the blood in such a situation falls into your ear, respiratory tract, esophagus.
• It is necessary to sit down with his head down and give blood to flow to a tissue or handkerchief.
• If the bleeding does not stop, you can put 15 minutes into the nostril turunda of wool, moistening of 3% hydrogen peroxide, and strongly pressed nostril.In addition to the peroxide can be used with the vasoconstrictor drops xylometazoline.
• On the nose and back of the head can be applied cold to cause vasoconstriction.
• Ensure air supply, open collar shirt or robe.The victim is desirable to inhale through your nose and exhale through the mouth to do.
• The signal that the situation goes out of control - bleeding that lasts more than 20 - 30 minutes, despite all the measures taken to stop it.
• After epistaxis during the day is better to avoid physical and emotional surge, stick gently.Do not play sports, do not lift weights, do not blow your nose.