oral mucosa inhabited by a large variety of microorganisms and is a place of equilibrium between the protective forces and bacterial flora.By reducing immunity, resulting in excessive vital activity of bacteria that balance is disturbed, which causes the development of infection in the mouth.The mucosa is characterized by the intensity of blood flow and large surface area.It is an excellent target for pathogenic microorganisms, although it contains protective mechanisms of the oral cavity, which include the local and general factors.Protection occurs oral specific and nonspecific ways.For nonspecific defense factors include mechanical, chemical and physiological.
composition of the microflora of the mouth is different enough persistence, however, the number of micro-organisms that inhabit it can sometimes vary.It depends on the process of salivation, the nature and consistency of the food, the state of oral tissue, the presence of somatic diseases, as well as non-compliance with the rules of personal h
microflora of the oral cavity include fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, spirochetes, protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae and anaerobic species.
composition of microflora in the oral cavity:
- all kinds of cocci decomposing carbohydrates, proteins break down to form hydrogen sulfide;
- facultative and obligate anaerobes, forming organic acids that inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms alien;
- rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid;
- yeast fungi of the genus Candida, which can provoke local affection or oral candidiasis in children;
- spirochetes often found in ulcerative stomatitis, angina Vincent and periodontitis;
- simple localized in the crypts of the tonsils, dental plaque and pus, which actively proliferate, especially under conditions of poor oral hygiene;
- Trichomonas developing periodontitis and gingivitis when.
normal microflora of the mouth is highly resistant to the antibacterial action of saliva.At the same time, she is actively involved in protecting the body from bacteria coming from outside.The antibacterial properties of oral liquid allows to maintain the dynamic equilibrium of all the microorganisms that live in the mouth.Thus, we can conclude that the saliva is not detrimental affect on the microflora, and provides its quantitative and qualitative constancy.
protection of the oral mucosa occurs through saliva washing and cleansing of various microorganisms in the process of eating.Desquamated epithelium cells are capable of rapid recovery due to the tendency to adhesion.In addition, saliva has a bactericidal effect due to the presence in its composition of biologically active substances.Such agents are lysozyme, secretory IgA, and neutrophils.
chemical and physiological protection
Lysozyme is an alkaline protein that has mucolytic action.It is found in the tear and secretory fluids, sputum and saliva.Lysozyme acts on the shell of many microorganisms, particularly gram positive stimulates leukocyte phagocytic activity and participates in the regeneration of biological tissue.Furthermore, lysozyme has a high sensitivity to ultraviolet rays of bases and acids.
enzymes saliva protect the mouth
Under the influence of saliva is a violation of the ability of microorganisms to adhere to the surface of the teeth or the oral mucosa.As a result, it prevents the development of dental caries.The mixed type is saliva over 50 different enzymes that differently affect the oral cavity.The most active enzymes are those that are able to break down proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
important factor of natural immunity in humans is a complement - a kind of protein complex contained in the serum.
With phagocytosis is suppressed inflammation of the oral cavity.Phagocytic cells are able to capture various microorganisms, particles and cells for further digestion by enzymes such lysosomes as peptidases, proteases, lipases, phosphatases and nucleases carboxylase.Furthermore, phagocytic cells are capable of releasing enzymes that allow smooth scars arising on the oral mucosa and immune complexes fix the basal capillary membranes.
specific protective mechanisms
immune defense mechanisms allow local control of the state of the oral mucosa.Numerous studies show that local immunity does not depend on the system and is caused by independent work.He has an important effect on the formation of general protective functions of the body and helps to resist various diseases of the oral cavity.
specific immunity is considered to be the ability to produce specific antibodies.The main factor of such immunoglobulins act antimicrobial protection - protective proteins secrets or serum, which have the function of antibodies and are globulin fraction.Injury mucosa, it inflammation or allergic reaction to enhance delivery secrets serum immunoglobulins.